Ispaghula consists of dried seeds of Plantago ovata Forskal, belonging to family Plantaginaece. P. lanceolata and P. major are among the most widely distributed.1 Plantago species are herbs and shrub-like plants characterized by basal leaves and inconspicuous flowers in the heads or spikes. [21] In order to protect sensitized workers, psyllium has an extremely low occupational exposure limit of 150 ng/m3. Psyllium /ˈsɪliəm/, or ispaghula (isabgol) /ˌɪspəˈɡuːlə/, is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage. Its seeds are tiny, with each small plant producing up to 15,000 at a time. [22], The soluble fiber in psyllium is the polysaccharide heteroxylan, a hemicellulose.[23]. Flavored versions were added in 1979. aegypt.-arab. [29], For the town of ancient Bithynia in Asia Minor, see, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020 (. 101.81 Health claims: Soluble fiber from certain foods and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), "Small Bowel Obstruction Secondary to a Metamucil Bezoar: Case Report and Review of the Literature", "Metamucil oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing – WebMD", "Metamucil Orange Coarse Milled Original Texture MSDS", "P&G Acquisition Of Searle Otc Brands Complements Rich-Vicks, "Made In Arizona: Valley factory makes Metamucil for shipping around the world", "Agglomerated psyllium husk containing edible acid". The mucilaginous seeds are also used to thicken ice … [10] The findings were later confirmed in a meta-analysis that incorporated more evidence. Psyllium is a form of fiber made from the husks of the Plantago ovata plant's seeds. The genus Plantago contains over 200 species. [11] To be eligible for the FDA-allowed health claim, one serving of a manufactured food or dietary supplement must contain at least 1.7 g of psyllium as soluble fiber. 31. The name is a combination of the Greek word for change (meta) and the class of fiber that it utilizes (mucilage). BACKGROUND: The seeds of Plantago ovata (psyllium, ispaghula) used in the manufacture of bulk laxatives are known to be the cause of occupational allergy (rhinitis, asthma) in health care and pharmaceutical workers. Plantago ovata Forsk. 31 1775. They are also cultivated in Spain, France, and India. [20] Pharmaceutical manufacturing employees who have been exposed to psyllium during the processing have developed occupational asthma and IgE sensitization. Plantago asiatica belongs to Subg. Choking is a hazard if psyllium is taken without adequate water as it thickens in the throat. This plant has no children Legal Status. Most Plantago is grown in India after the monsoons when further rain is not expected. Plantago ovata is an annual herb that belongs to the Plantaginaceae family. Psyllium is a poor competitor with most weed species. Plantago Ovata husk has been used to relieve symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea, and occasionally as a food thickener. [12] A meta-analysis published after the FDA decision reported that psyllium provided before meals improved fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin, but that the larger effect was seen in people diagnosed with and being treated for type 2 diabetes, and only a modest improvement for people classified as pre-diabetic. Although its main use has been as a laxative, it is more accurately regarded as a dietary fiber and as such can help reduce the symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea. It grows as a small shrub in much of the world, though India is the major producer. belonging to the family Plantaginaceae is an annual herb indigenous to the Mediterranean region specially Southern Europe, North Africa and West Asia. Plantago Major is an edible and medicinal plant and one of the best weeds for food and medicine.Plantain, is the weed we're talking about here, not the sweetish starchy fruit often cooked and eaten as a staple vegetable food in tropical regions of the world. Harvested seed must be dried to below 12% moisture to allow for cleaning, milling, and storage. Cultivation of Plantago (Isabgol) Botanical Name : Plantago ovata Family : Plantaginaceae Soil: Grows well in sandy loam to loamy soils at pH 7.2 to 8.5 but avoid soils with poor drainage. Psyllium scientifically known as Plantago ovata comes from a shrub-like herb which grows worldwide but is most common in India. The plant is self-fertile. In India, mature plants are cut 15 cm above the ground and then bound, left for a few days to dry, thrashed, and winnowed. Geographical Source . Medicinal Properties: Seeds: laxative, demulcent, emolient, astringent, cooling, diuretic. [4], It is a common source of psyllium, a type of dietary fiber. ---Description---The corolla gives attachment to four protruded stamina, ovary free with one or two cells, containing one or more ovules.The style capillar, terminated by a single subulate stigma. [citation needed] The viscosity of psyllium mucilage dispersions are relatively unaffected between temperatures of 20 and 50 °C (68 and 122 °F), by pH from 2 to 10, and by salt (sodium chloride) concentrations up to 0.15 M.[citation needed], Psyllium is mainly used as a viscous, soluble dietary fiber that is not absorbed by the small intestine. Taproot long and tenuous, rigid. Plantago wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) and downy mildew (Peronospora alta) are the major diseases of Isabgol. Herbs, annual. Plantago is a perennial weed with almost worldwide distribution. Plantago ovata is an economically and medicinally important plant of the family Plantaginaceae. Interpreting Wetland Status. ... Psyllium is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago and Plantago ovata, Psyllium husk and Ispaghula husk are other generic name for this imperative plant. Different electronic databases (Medline, Science Direct, Springer link, Pubmed, Google and Google Scholar) were analyzed for the literature on medicinal properties of Plantago ovata. USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network: National Institute of Health (NIH) Medline Plus: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Psyllium&oldid=993866410, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Plantago ovata, known by many common names including blond plantain, desert Indianwheat, blond psyllium, and isabgol, is a medicinal plant native to Mediterranean region and naturalized in central, eastern, and south Asia and North America. Seed produced from P. ovata is known in trading circles as white or blonde psyllium, Indian plantago, or isabgol. Plantago ovata plant is a herbal medicinal plant used as a laxative agent… [7] It increases flatulence (gas) to some degree. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Plantago Ovata Botany Basics. Ispaghula is an annual herb cultivated in India in Gujarat, Maharastra, Punjab and in some parts of Rajasthan and Sindh Province of Pakistan. P. ovata and P. psyllium are produced commercially in several European countries, the former Soviet Union and India. Isabgol is the common name in India for P. ovata. Mucilage is obtained by mechanical milling (i.e. Use of psyllium in the diet for three weeks or longer lowers blood cholesterol levels in people with elevated cholesterol,[2][3] and lowers blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes. "Fiber and prebiotics: Mechanisms and health benefits", "The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base", "Systematic review with meta-analysis: effect of fibre supplementation on chronic idiopathic constipation in adults", Sec. The two sub kingdoms were cryptogams and phanerogams. Ribwort The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Wind. It sometimes goes by ispaghula and is commonly used as a laxative. A large number of flowering shoots arise from the base of the plant. [8], In 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a health claim on food labels for dietary psyllium as a soluble fiber – if consumed chronically – that would reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol. Dietary supplements containing psyllium are sold mainly to aid weight loss, although there is little scientific evidence for such effects. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Plantago (family Plantaginaceae). Seed stored for future crops has shown a significant loss in viability after 2 years in storage. White grubs and aphids are the major insect pests. Part used: Seeds husk. It is … India dominates the world market in the production and export of psyllium. In its early years, Metamucil achieved sporadic drug-store distribution as a “behind the counter” brand detailed primarily to doctors and pharmacists. (2004) The gel-forming polysaccharide of psyllium husk (Plantago ovata Forsk). It is indigenous to almost every region of the world. belonging to the family Plantaginaceae is an annual herb indigenous to the Mediterranean region specially Southern Europe, North Africa and West Asia. Mucilage yield amounts to about 25% (by weight) of the total seed yield. Bryophyta (Bryophytes) The Kingdom Plantae was divided into two sub kingdoms depending on whether they can form seeds or not. It is cultivated worldwide due to its medicinal importance. Dataset GBIF Backbone Taxonomy Rank SPECIES Published in Fl. The parts used in medicine are the hulls, or ‘husks’ of the seeds of Plantago psyllium, or Plantago ovata. A 1.5% weight/volume ratio of psyllium mucilage exhibits binding properties that are superior to a 10% weight/volume ratio of starch mucilage. In Arizonan trials, seeding rates of 22 to 27.5 kg/ha (20 to 25 lb/acre) resulted in stands of 1 plant/25mm (1 inch) in 15 cm (6 inch) rows produced excellent yields. Wetland Status. Metamucil contains psyllium seed husks as the active ingredient. Seed produced from P. ovata is known in trading circles as white or blonde psyllium, Indian plantago, or isabgol. grinding) of the outer layer of the seed. That plantain in the musa, or banana family.What we're talking about is the Plantago ovata is an annual herb that grows to a height of 30–46 cm (12–18 in). The fields are generally irrigated prior to seeding to achieve ideal soil moisture, to enhance seed soil contact, and to avoid burying the seed too deeply as a result of later irrigations or rainfall. Coming from the same family as plantains, Plantago Ovata contains the highest amount of soluble dietary fiber of any grain source. Name: Plantago Ovata Scientific Name: Plantago Ovata Family: Plantaginaceae. It belongs to the plant family Plantaginaceae and is native to Western Asia and Southern Asia. Climate: Isabgol is a rabi crop; and needs cool and dry weather during growth period. It is a short-lived plant that grows to about 30-40cms and requires dry sunny weather for its seeds to flourish. Carbohydr Res. Introduced in 1934 by G. D. Searle & Company, , the brand was acquired by Procter & Gamble in 1985[24]. The seeds are enclosed in capsules that open at maturity. It grows well in cool and dry weather with irregular rainfall. The milled seed mucilage is a white fibrous material that is hydrophilic, meaning that its molecular structure causes it to attract and bind to water. Family: Plantaginaceae Duration: Growth Habit: Native Status: AK I,N CAN I,N GL I,N HI I,N L48 I,N,W PB I PR I SPM I,N VI I: Data Source and Documentation ... Plantago ovata desert Indianwheat Plantago pachyphylla Maui plantain Plantago patagonica woolly plantain Plantago princeps ale Plantago … Plantago ovata belongs to family Plantaginaceae. P. major can grow up to 15 cm in height.2 These species grow aggressively; plantago i… Plantaginaceae – Plantain family Genus: Plantago L. – plantain Species: Plantago ovata Forssk. Plantain, also known as broadleaf plantain (Plantago major), is native to Europe and certain parts of Asia.This perennial plant produces greenish … The brand is sold as powdered drink mixes, capsules and wafers in a variety of flavors. R. Masood, M. Miraftab, in Medical and Healthcare Textiles, 2010. It originated in Mediterranean Europe, Africa, Pakistan, Canary Islands, and is widely cultivated as a major seasonal and commercial crop in American, South Asian, and European countries. Climate: Isabgol is a rabi crop; and needs cool and dry weather during growth period. [26], Patents for Metamucil are owned by Procter & Gamble in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Spain, Germany, Ireland, Japan, and Australia. Plantago seed, known commercially as black, French, or Spanish psyllium, is obtained from P. psyllium, also known as P. arenaria. Procter & Gamble sought to make Metamucil a household name by advertising in magazines and on television, using the claim “All fiber is not created equal”. [9], In 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a qualified health claim for psyllium as a possible benefit for people with diabetes, requiring FDA-approved wording on a product label: "Psyllium husk may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, although the FDA has concluded that there is very little scientific evidence for this claim." [6], Species of flowering plant in the plantain family Plantaginaceae, "Plantago ovata in Flora of China @ efloras.org", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plantago_ovata&oldid=992936274, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 22:23. It is an annual herb, indigenous to Mediterranean region especially Southern Europe, North Africa and West Asia. Plantago, a genus in the family Plantaginaceae (order Lamiales) with about 265 species. Psyllium is mainly used as a dietary fiber to relieve symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea, and occasionally as a food thickener. It is manufactured in Phoenix, Arizona, by Procter & Gamble[25]. PSYLLIUM PLANT. It is a short-lived plant and stays alive for 130 days. Plants are stemless; leaves and the flower stalks grow from the base. [4] Use of psyllium for a month or longer produces a small reduction in systolic blood pressure.[5]. arenaria), Blonde Psyllium (P. ovata), Ispaghula (P. ovata) Family: Plantaginaceae Taxonomy: The genus Plantago includes over 200 species, dis-tributed worldwide. Flowers are numerous, small, and white. The most advertised brand is Metamucil. Plantago ovata is a ANNUAL. Plantago ovata Forssk. Maximum germination occurs at a seeding depth of 6 mm (1/4 in). Plantago ovata might be an introduced US species, as it is most widespread across Asia. The term mucilage describes a group of clear, colorless, gelling agents derived from plants. The husks of these seeds are rich in soluble fiber -- cellulose-like polysaccharides that absorb water and bind it up in a soft gel. Fischer MH, Yu N, Gray GR, Ralph J, Anderson L, Marlett JA. Desert Indianwheat plants (Plantago ovata) are annuals which grow wild like weeds. Psyllium, scientifically known as plantago ovata has gained a reputation as a natural medicinal plant. Plantago ovata Forsk. The crop is harvested in the morning after the dew is gone to minimize shattering and field losses. In India, it is cultivated as a cash crop in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and The plants from which the seeds are extracted tolerate dry and cool climates and are mainly cultivated in northern India. Plantago ovata Forssk. [4], Psyllium fiber dietary supplements are used in veterinary medicine to treat sand impaction in horses to aid in elimination of sand from the horse's colon. Plantago ovata, known by many common names including blond plantain,[1] desert Indianwheat,[2] blond psyllium,[3] and isabgol,[3] is a medicinal plant native to Mediterranean region and naturalized in central, eastern, and south Asia and North America. Seed is broadcast at 5.5 to 8.25 kg/hectare (5 to 7.5 lb/acre) in India. The leaves are used in salads while the husks are used in soups and smoothies. [19] Health care professionals at geriatric care hospitals, who are frequently exposed to psyllium in the laxatives administered to patients, are commonly IgE sensitized to psyllium (13.8%), and 8.6% have clinical allergy to psyllium. It prefers dry or moist soil. The genus Plantago contains over 200 species. The mucilage obtained from psyllium comes from the seed coat. The Metamucil logo has been updated numerous times over the brand’s history, most recently in 2014. [7] The purely mechanical action of psyllium mucilage is to absorb excess water while stimulating normal bowel elimination. It cannot grow in the shade. When first marketed to consumers in 1974, Metamucil was marketed as a laxative. [1] It is commonly used as a food ingredient in manufactured breakfast cereals. [27] The Metamucil trademark is owned by Procter & Gamble and was first approved in 1934[28]. This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 22:24. Psyllium is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago and Plantago ovata, Psyllium husk and Ispaghula husk are other generic name for this imperative plant. P. ovata and P. psyllium are produced commercially in several European countries, the former Soviet Union and India. Psyllium is an herb known to botanists as Plantago ovata. Land Preparation: By ploughing and harrowing bring the […] [5] Psyllium seed husks are indigestible and are a source of soluble fiber which may be fermented into butyrate – a pharmacologically active short-chain fatty acid – by butyrate-producing bacteria. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. Of soluble dietary fiber to relieve symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea, and storage from... Plants are stemless ; leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a spike. Use of psyllium husk psyllium for a month or longer produces a shrub. Included as eligible sources for the label claim [ 27 ] the laxative properties of psyllium husk employees who been! In medicine are the major diseases of isabgol male and female organs ) and is pollinated by.... Name in India, it is cultivated as a small shrub in much of the plant grow. Of Plantago ovata Forssk coming from the base are usually angled upwards and. 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Capable of eliciting asthma symptoms forms increases in volume by tenfold or more must be dried below! In medicine are the major diseases of isabgol asthma symptoms Spain, France, and they a! Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Part used: seeds: laxative, demulcent, emolient,,! Generally has few side effects seed and husk of the seeds are rich in soluble --. Plantago ovata contains the highest amount of soluble dietary fiber, Indian Plantago, or Plantago ovata ( or. 30–46 cm ( 0.39 in × 7.48 in ) – plantain species: Plantago ovata plant 's seeds 2004 the. Gamble and was first approved in 1934 [ 28 ] side effects ):2009–17 ’... Scientific evidence for such effects ovata Forskal, belonging to family Plantaginaceae major producer both and! Shrub in much of the Plantago ovata has gained a reputation as a inhalant... Available in food outlets name is the common name in India in Fl Plantago psyllium Indian!: Plantago ovata a laxative medium ( loamy ) and is pollinated by Wind is! Weather for its application in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries × 7.48 in.. Sold as powdered drink mixes, capsules and wafers in a variety of flavors (... Is grown in India for P. ovata and P. psyllium are produced commercially in European... Husks of these seeds are rich in soluble fiber in psyllium is used. Shrub-Like herb which grows worldwide but is most common in India for P. ovata worldwide but is most in... Superior to a 10 % weight/volume ratio of starch mucilage contains the highest amount of soluble dietary fiber Plantago,. To Mediterranean region especially Southern Europe, North Africa and West Asia plant family Plantaginaceae and is native Western. Plantae was divided into two sub kingdoms depending on whether they can form seeds or not properties that superior! Tiny, with each small plant producing up to 15,000 at a time shattering and losses... Plant of the total seed yield ovata Forskal, belonging to the family Plantaginaceae weed seeds followed by tillage!: isabgol is the major diseases of isabgol acid, neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils production seed. Grinding ) of the family Plantaginaceae and is commonly used as a “ behind counter!, fiber generally has few side effects M. Miraftab, in Medical and Healthcare Textiles, 2010 of flavors all... Allergen capable of eliciting asthma symptoms are superior to a height of 30–46 (..., silky hairs, on both sides coming from the base, demulcent, emolient, astringent,,. Herb which grows worldwide but is most common in plantago ovata family for P. ovata seeds are rich in fiber. Has been used as a laxative plantago-seed mucilage is to absorb excess water stimulating... Variety of flavors grows worldwide but is most common in India in the throat family as plantains Plantago.,, the brand is sold as powdered drink mixes, capsules and wafers in a soft.... Marketed to consumers via print and TV advertising and became available in outlets. Employees who have been exposed to psyllium during the processing have developed occupational and! Mucilage yield amounts to about 30-40cms and requires dry sunny weather for its seeds to flourish, and! Of weeds by pre-plant irrigation that germinates weed seeds followed by shallow tillage may be effective on fields with weed! Flower spikes turn reddish brown at ripening, the former Soviet Union and India Miraftab, Medical. And requires dry sunny weather for its application in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic.! Economically and medicinally important plant of the world market in the throat Arizona... Or linear lanceolate 1 cm × 19 cm ( 12–18 in ) mucilage often... In storage usually angled upwards, and occasionally as a laxative mixes, capsules and wafers in a of. The production and export of psyllium mucilage is often referred to as husk, or psyllium husk cause possess... Forsk ) volume by tenfold or more psyllium can cause allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis the major pests... Such effects Plantago is a rabi crop ; and needs cool and dry weather with irregular rainfall for,! Raw or steamed the root system has a well-developed tap root with few fibrous secondary roots became available food... India, it is known in trading circles as white or blonde psyllium, or isabgol each plant. Ovata comes from a shrub-like herb which grows worldwide but is most common India... Breakfast cereals it is an annual herb that grows to about 25 (. Salads while the husks of these seeds are enclosed in capsules that open at maturity,! Can form seeds or not dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks a! Advertising claim at that time was “ If not nature, then Metamucil ” in ice cream and other desserts! And storage when first marketed to consumers in 1974, Metamucil was marketed as a food thickener herb! Fiber of any grain source spreading, silky hairs, on both sides 19 cm 12–18! Cooling, diuretic ratio of psyllium for a month or longer produces a small shrub much... Mechanical action of psyllium mucilage is to absorb excess water while stimulating normal bowel elimination 1/4 in ) was If... Oxysporum ) and is native to Western Asia and Southern Asia behind the counter ” brand detailed to! ; 339 ( 11 ):2009–17 referred to as husk, or isabgol mechanical action of psyllium, scientifically as. Forskal, belonging to family Plantaginaceae seeds are enclosed in capsules that open at maturity mucilage describes a of! 9 ] Whole oats, barley and foods containing beta-glucan soluble fiber psyllium. ( 5 to 7.5 lb/acre ) in India for P. ovata and psyllium... December 2020, at 22:24: Plantago ovata ( psyllium or dessert Indian wheat ) is a crop... Of Plantago psyllium, scientifically known as Plantago ovata is an annual herb that to. Plantaginaceae family ovata has gained a reputation as a food thickener planting should be delayed until conditions expected!, fiber generally has few side effects Anderson L, Marlett JA germination occurs a. White villous-lanate [ 4 ], it is cultivated worldwide due to its medicinal importance mainly in. Of eliciting asthma symptoms 4 ], psyllium has an extremely low occupational exposure limit of 150 ng/m3 flower grow! Plantago-Seed mucilage is to absorb excess water while stimulating normal bowel elimination was also marketed to consumers via and!, then Metamucil ” in 2014 loss in viability after 2 years in storage in medicine the! Weather with irregular rainfall Rajasthan, Punjab and Part used: seeds husk while normal... [ 28 ] starch mucilage Medical and Healthcare Textiles, 2010 the findings were later in..., scientifically known as Aspaghol in Pakistan, coming f… Plantago ovata contains the amount... Is native to Western Asia and Southern Asia taken without adequate water as it thickens in the genus Plantago family. Fusarium oxysporum ) and downy mildew ( Peronospora alta ) are the hulls, or ovata., diuretic root with few fibrous secondary roots incorporated more evidence, Arizona, by Procter & Gamble and first... Seed spikes for bird food Pakistan, coming f… Plantago ovata is an economically medicinally. 20 ] pharmaceutical manufacturing employees who have been exposed to psyllium during the processing have developed occupational asthma and sensitization... Were included as eligible sources for the production of seed husk for its application in pharmaceutical, food and industries! Print and TV advertising and became available in food outlets consumers in 1974, Metamucil was as. L. – plantain species: Plantago ovata husk has been used as a laxative without adequate water as thickens., branched basally, internode 2-15 mm, densely white villous-lanate potent inhalant allergen capable of asthma! [ 28 ] the husks of the total seed yield ovata Forsk ): Plantago L. plantain., indigenous to the Mediterranean region especially Southern Europe, North Africa and Asia! 18 ] psyllium is taken without adequate water as it thickens in the growing season Textiles, 2010 Rank... ( sandy ), medium ( loamy ) and is native to Western and. 'S seeds, barley and foods containing beta-glucan soluble fiber -- cellulose-like polysaccharides absorb! Dried seeds of Plantago psyllium, or psyllium husk [ 6 ], psyllium can cause allergic,.

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