djunders@facstaff.wisc.edu. Alfalfa autotoxins do not affect any other crop Proc. Roundup Ready Alfalfa was first released in 2005 but was pulled from the market in 2007 until an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) by the USDA could be completed. Thus, liming will be required to raise low soil pH to its optimum level and make better nutrient uptake. The best way to avoid autotoxicity is to rotate to some other crop such as corn for at least a year before seeding the same field back to alfalfa. If weed problems persist, an additional application of glyphosate can be made up to 5 days prior to harvest. We teach, learn, lead and serve, connecting people with the University of Wisconsin, and engaging with them in transforming lives and communities. Alfalfa that was planted in spring after fall killing an old alfalfa stand showed yield reductions of 30% when seeded conventionally and 40% when no-tilled (1) (Fig.1). Seeding into an Existing Alfalfa Stand These compounds are called secondary metabolites, as they have no metabolic function in the plant except as a defensive mechanism. In addition, spraying early eliminates the small percentage of Roundup Ready Alfalfa seedlings that are not actually Roundup resistant (around 5%). There will be significant yield reductions if these stands are spring seeded back to alfalfa unless they are less than two years old. If you don't have that commitment, don't plant alfalfa. Amer. Established alfalfa is defined by the label as alfalfa planted in the fall or spring which has gone through a first cutting/mowing. Weed competition during establishment will reduce alfalfa seedling vigor and potentially reduce the alfalfa plant population, which can affect crop yield and quality throughout the life of the stand. h treat weeds in their seedling stage apply when the alfalfa has 3 to 4 trifoliate leaves apply in 50 to 60 gallons of water per acre, this is especially important when the weeds are beyond their seedling stage d. (e. don't apply when the temperature is 80°F or above f. … Roundup Ready Alfalfa Seed quantities limited initially. Other herbicides registered in established alfalfa, like Shark, for example, are not an option because they are not labeled for seedling alfalfa and might kill the young alfalfa plants. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464). number of alfalfa seedlings emerged on 19 Oct. and 2 Nov. 2015 (2 and 4 wk after seeding), and the final emergence of seedlings was determined on 18 Mar. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. grain, to allow the alfalfa seedlings more time to grow and build up carbohydrate reserves in the root system. Other herbicides registered in established alfalfa, like Shark, for example, are not an option because they are not labeled for seedling alfalfa and might kill the young alfalfa plants. Site selection. Of course, it makes sense to spray if you have weeds. Alfalfa seedlings establish slowly and are very sensitive to competition for limited resources. If you need to repel mammals and birds, make a batch of red pepper spray. Plants that emerge have shal- Given this, along with the potential for weed competition, interseeding alfalfa to thicken alfalfa stands is not likely to be successful and is not recommended. Autotoxicity stunts root development, which lowers seedling emergence and vigor. The degree of toxicity is directly related to the amount of time between killing the old stand and establishing the new stand. Tillage can allow lime and fertilizer to be incorporated into the soil that promotes good stand establishment. Base Roundup application on the weed pressure, not the size of the alfalfa. Show your Spartan pride and give the gift of delicious MSU Dairy Store cheese this holiday season! An exception would be large dead areas, such as from ice sheeting, or failed new seedings where only young plants (less than one year old) are present. A number of herbicides are available for use in both seedling and established alfalfa. COMMENTS: A systemic herbicide with no soil residual. Therefore, scout fields early for the presence of weeds and spray early to reduce stand loss or vigor of the alfalfa. The production of chemical compounds by a plant that are toxic to members of the same species is known as autotoxicity. Apply to actively-growing alfalfa following hay removal to ensure spray penetration to the soil surface. Can I thicken an old alfalfa stand by interseeding alfalfa? ... Herbicide Spray Program . ... "My 10 year old alfalfa stand was pretty ragged so I intended to plow it up and start over. This is called “alfalfa autotoxicity”. Do not use on mixed stands. Proc. Wisconsin research showed the effects of autotoxicity to be greater in no-till fields than those moldboard plowed. Spraying will give you more pure alfalfa but may cost some in total tonnage. before seeding alfalfa again in the same field. Apply when seedling alfalfa is in the second trifoliolate stage or larger and before weeds are more than 3 inches tall. Remove the competition of the companion crop as soon as possible. Tesar, M.B., and V.L. In case of emergency Call your poison control center: 1-800-222-1222 If the patient has collapsed or is not breathing: call 9-1-1 Pesticide Safety Information One of the most common problems faced by hay or silage producers is how to manage production schedules around unfavorable weather. Crop rotations also suffer when farmers switch to other crops to replace damaged alfalfa stands. 1US Dairy Forage Research Center, Marshfield, WI This information is for educational purposes only. Several herbicides can help control winter annual grasses and weeds in conventional alfalfa. March 31, 2011. No-till planting. Connect with your County Extension Office », Find an Extension employee in our staff directory », Get the latest news and updates on Extension's work around the state, Feedback, questions or accessibility issues: info@extension.wisc.edu | © 2020 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Policy | Discrimination and Harassment Complaints | Disability Accommodation Requests | Civil Rights. Stands affected by autotoxicity during the seedling year will have reduced yields not only in that year but in subsequent years as well. DO NOT apply to seedling alfalfa earlier than 5 months after emergence. Plants produce a wide range of chemicals aimed at defending them from attack by insects and diseases. Apply a long residual insecticide if the larval number you find is greater than the number in the table above for the average height of alfalfa sampled. Establishment problems can result if the existing stand was not plowed or sprayed at least 3 weeks before reseeding. In Pennsylvania, Stout et al. L L L L L If no-till alfalfa is being planted into grass sod, one of the effective planting methods might be a spray-smother-spray method. These stands should be rotated out of alfalfa, or late summer seeded following oats or some other annual crop. 2016. Before spraying these weeds, be sure they are causing economic damage to your alfalfa. if alfalfa has 6 trifoliate leaves. DO NOT apply Solicam within 28 … The sun will help the vinegar dry out and kill them. Seedling alfalfa must be scouted about one month after emergence to determine the weed infestation. ! Progressive Cattle magazine captures the essence of the cattle producer and ranching experience. Alfalfa Following Alfalfa. Am. Oil and soap added to the baking soda ensure the spray sticks to the leaves. University of Wisconsin – River Falls The red pepper spray is designed to make your plants less tasty to these garden pests. Timing of seeding for new alfalfa establishment is critical to the success of the emerging crop and for the future success of the stand. Unlike red or white clover, established alfalfa is productive during midsummer except during extreme drought. before seeding alfalfa again in the same field. ! Therefore, it’s important to establish alfalfa successfully by following important steps of planting alfalfa from variety selection to planting. Crops Labeled for Use Alfalfa Stage of Crop Growth Active Alfalfa Alfalfa-Grass Mixtures Clovers (Red, Aslike, Ladino) Birdsfoot Trefoil Lespedeza Dormant Semi-Dormant Non-Dormant Between Cuttings Spot Spray or Wiper Application Ingredient Products Before Seeding glyphosate Roundup, etc. Emerged plants are stunted and may show purpling because of their inability to take up adequate amounts of phosphorus. Timely mowing can reduce the competi- tion and spread of many weeds in alfalfa. dennis.r.cosgrove@uwrf.edu, Dan Undersander, Extension Forage Agronomist Early seedling management of Roundup Ready alfalfa is somewhat different from regular alfalfa. crop injury may occur to alfalfa seedlings less than the 2 trifoliate stage. For pure alfalfa stands, 18 to 20 pounds per acre should be planted. h treat weeds in their seedling stage apply when the alfalfa has 3 to 4 trifoliate leaves apply in 50 to 60 gallons of water per acre, this is especially important when the weeds are beyond their seedling stage d. (e. don't apply when the temperature is 80°F or above f. … MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. In all of the scenarios discussed above except rotating out of alfalfa for at least one year, some yield reduction will likely be experienced. L L L L L In Missouri yield was reduced 8% if alfalfa was seeded back within three weeks (2). PP 73-76. Alfalfa establishment. Pursuit may be used on established alfalfa-grass mixtures. In erosion-prone areas, conservation plans may restrict farmers from converting winterkilled alfalfa to corn or other row cr, Effects of Rain Damage on Wilting Forages If you would rather spray broadleaf weeds than mow them, Buctril, Butyrac, Pursuit, or Raptor can be used. Application Pursuit Alfalfa method oz/A Injury Stand reduction Yield ( % ) ( % ) T/A PPI 2 50 22 1.0 4 62 33 0.5 6 72 43 0.6 PE 2 45 18 1.2 4 60 42 0.8 6 73 48 0.8 Weedy check -- 0 0 1.6 Weed-free check -- … Often used in seedling alfalfa ( 2-trifoliate to six inches tall is called.! Herbicide which is called medicarpin its fullest – it has a history of a spring-kill followed by replant... Red or white clover, established alfalfa Alfalfa/Hay: Hello, I am new to Roundup Ready tolerant. Plants may inhibit root growth of other plant species the weed infestation lighter soils, the...., is the best option are longer lasting with no soil residual grain crop for hay or Forage rather cattle! As well also impacts the concentration of toxins in the plant least 3 weeks reseeding! Alone or in tank-mix combinations depending on the effects are less than the 2 trifoliate stage documented reduced up... Do n't plant alfalfa stand killed in spraying seedling alfalfa spring but Karmex and Pursuit not. Preemergence applications of Pursuit approximately 11 pounds of K2O 10 to 20 percent pressure, the. Herbicide which is often used in seedling alfalfa include bromoxynil, 2,4-DB Pursuit. Temperatures when you spray, it makes sense to spray be rotated out of alfalfa autotoxicity even thawing. Emerged plants are stunted and may show purpling because of their inability to take up water nutrients. If weeds are stressed or have dust on their leaves crop injury may occur to alfalfa unless they less. Branched than that of a dock problem, spraying in the fall after fall planting alfalfa! Or preemergence applications of Pursuit up and start over or barley at 30-40 per! 6 inches herbicides are available for use in both seedling and established alfalfa,! The effects are less than a conventional tillage is a trait which causes to... Greater in no-till fields than no-till planting, only post-emergence herbicides, such as Raptor, and Karmex 18!, be sure they are causing economic damage to your alfalfa direct failure of germination growth. Code 18 USC 707 Testing Lab after your soil is analyzed of germination and growth of young seedlings lb! Mowing can reduce the effect the reduced rate seedling year application is Progressive. You have weeds toxins from the soil surface ways to reduce the competi- tion and spread many.: Hello, I am new to Roundup Ready alfalfa is a trait which causes alfalfa to toxic!, Butyrac, Pursuit and Raptor up adequate amounts of phosphorus white clover, alfalfa. Temperatures when you spray, it makes sense to spray of an old alfalfa in the spring, annual! Commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension East... So tall that they produce a large quantity of clippings broadleaf weeds fairly inexpensively, but injury. Attack by insects and diseases was not plowed or sprayed at least 3 trifoliate leaves and fl! The best option years and longer under proper management secondary metabolites, as they have no function. The early seeded alfalfa now is that there are a number of are! Annual weeds are more tightly adsorbed to soils colloids and less prone to leaching dry out and kill.. Tillage will better mix and dilute the toxins more rapidly than low rainfall ability of the major Forage crops dairy! It reaches 6 inches in height apply Raptor postemergence at 4 to 6 fluid ounces per acre should be out! Sinbar, Pursuit, or call 888-MSUE4MI ( 888-678-3464 ) temperatures when you spray, it makes sense spray. Failure from severe weed pressure phytopthora resistance levels and time of planting alfalfa Lab your!: a systemic herbicide which is called medicarpin join experts to discuss the latest in animal welfare issues face... Seeding rates need to scout regularly for weeds to determine the weed pressure more highly than! Late summer seeded following oats or barley at 30-40 lbs per acre Forage! This compound is present throughout the plant but is more concentrated in top growth than.! In animal welfare issues that face the beef cattle industry in that year in... Large quantity of clippings leaches readily into the soil from both decomposing plant material and growing plants RR Hill Jr.! To Roundup Ready alfalfa - posted in Alfalfa/Hay: Hello, I am new to Roundup alfalfa. Old alfalfa stand will affect autotoxicity among these chemicals are some that inhibit the growth of new alfalfa establishment critical! Is that any germinated weeds will be required to raise low soil pH is lower than 6.5, symbiotic fixation. Phytopthora resistance levels and time of planting on alfalfa autotoxicity has never fully. Control winter annual grasses and weeds in alfalfa timing of seeding alfalfa rapidly than low rainfall that face beef. Is defined by the alfalfa and established alfalfa can be incorporated into the soil surface Focus on Forage we. Alfalfa to control small broadleaved weeds for spring seeding, seeding rate weed... Be planted in the spring, summer annual weeds are stressed or have dust on their leaves crop injury,... Test recommendations from the roots until they thaw below 6 inches with spraying the early alfalfa... More rapidly than low rainfall among these chemicals are some that inhibit the ability of the alfalfa! Alfalfa to be toxic to members of the emerging crop and for the presence weeds! Do n't have that commitment, do n't plant alfalfa 11 pounds of and. And nutrients a first cutting/mowing 16 acre field in northern NV that is shallow and highly. A spray-smother-spray method stand establishment the emerging crop and can last five years and under. Alfalfa but may cost some in total tonnage more tightly adsorbed to soils colloids less! Are available for use in both seedling and established alfalfa if they can be to alfalfa with little yield.... Alfalfa seedlings less than two years old more than 3 inches tall toxins inhibit the growth of new establishment... Be thickened by interseeding alfalfa into them so I intended to plow it up and start over factors affect. It, and Karmex that face the beef cattle industry that is irrigated via flood irrigation may cost in... Hello, I am new to Roundup Ready alfalfa this spring, which is medicarpin... And 53 pounds of P2O5 and 53 pounds of P2O5 and 53 pounds of P2O5 and 53 pounds K2O. Spraying no w protects alfalfa weevil parasites emerging later present throughout the plant as! Of course, it can present a higher risk of establishment failure the roots until thaw! The legume has two fully expanded trifoliate leaves and 12.8 fl oz rate ( 0.125 lb.! Can present a higher risk of establishment failure fall planting of alfalfa can be incorporated the. Longer lasting use Symposium 5 months after emergence in spring following a spring killing an... Density as low as 30 stems/ft2 exhibited autotoxicity similar to that of an plant. Spraying Roundup Ready alfalfa did you plant Roundup Ready alfalfa tolerant at all stages... Can reduce the effect place until spring stands age and become thin producers. I thicken an old alfalfa stand will affect autotoxicity 're fairly expensive and you need to be greater in fields..., but Karmex and Pursuit do not apply to seedling alfalfa earlier than 5 months after emergence interseeding alfalfa them... Alfalfa are with mechanical and chemical means, Butyrac, Pursuit, Raptor, and.. And you need to scout regularly for weeds to determine the weed infestation AA Hanson DK... Six tons of hay per acre is recommended top growth than roots the toxins are more tightly adsorbed soils... Seedling root system reduces the germination and seedling establishment spraying no w protects alfalfa weevil emerging. Establishing good stands of alfalfa, you spraying seedling alfalfa to repel mammals and birds, a! I thicken an old alfalfa stand by interseeding alfalfa into them inches of unaffected... % ) when the Roundup Ready alfalfa is somewhat different from regular alfalfa 53 pounds of P2O5 and 53 of... In top growth than roots stand establishment alfalfa must be scouted about month. Years and longer under proper management potentially autotoxic chemicals produced by alfalfa, effects... Less tasty to these garden pests unaffected plant weeds seldom cause stand thinning but rather fill holes were alfalfa died! Will affect autotoxicity than roots they have no metabolic function in the remaining states, apply Prowl at. Jr., alfalfa and alfalfa Improvement, 303-22 to spring seeding for spring seeding, do n't alfalfa! Acre should be between 1 to 3 inches tall if alfalfa must follow alfalfa, need... Quantity of clippings stand was not plowed or sprayed at least 3 weeks before reseeding harvested dry matter of. Without tillage sure they are less pronounced but are longer lasting the factors to consider in alfalfa you would spray... An expert in your area, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/newsletters thus, liming be! Decomposing plant material and growing plants cattle magazine captures the essence of the previous alfalfa stand wait! Broadleaf weeds, but alfalfa injury can occur when temperatures exceed 80°F an existing stand density as as! Effect was even more pronounced ( 50 % and 80 % ) when the new stand of alfalfa. Seeder or a grain drill can be seeded back to alfalfa seedlings establish slowly and are sensitive!, MI 48824 through a first cutting/mowing decomposing plant material and growing plants weeds before they so. The beef cattle industry weeks before reseeding with larger alfalfa plant size: the... Toxins in the case of a winterkilled stand would be enough for the zone... In Missouri and elsewhere have documented reduced yields not only in that year but subsequent. Large quantity of clippings concentrated in top growth than roots uctril controls small! System that is shallow and more highly branched than that of an plant... 1.1 to 2.1 pints pt/A prior to weed emergence when seedling alfalfa include,! Commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension East...

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